Compiled by John B. Woodyard
School of the Natural Order
April 1977

A-D 

(Null A)  Non-aristotelian. The _ orientation is characterized by non-identity with substantive images; indicative of a higher level of development. Also characterized by a lack of dogmatism, dogmatic statements, self-opinionations, etc. The consciousness is impressed more with non-allness than with ‘allness.’ Teachers Guide (Vol 1) p.19 & 26 Ibid (Vol 3) p. 21. The world is perceived as an energy-world in structure-function-order. The Natural Order Process (Vol 2) p. 70. The advent of consciousness. Self Mastery Through Meditation p. 104  See Also: General Semantics

Aarru (Garden of Aarru)  The highest psyche. Membership letters (ii) p.1. When the psyche is cleared of its animal qualities and cleared of all motivations in generation we call it the Garden of Aarru, the Ardath. In that cleared state the higher levels can be very accurately reflected. Practices in individual Development p. 9 Where the Light World, the Light Mother, and her differentiated fields are reflected in the psychic nature. There, relative to all levels below, particularly the objective self-conscious state, it is analogous to heaven itself. Studies in Psychotherapy, p. 74. See Also: Ardath, Garden of Eden, Garden of the Gods.

Aborigine types Tribal, pre-aristotelian levels of development, infantilism, submental atavistic types. Teachers Guide (Vol 1) p.49.

Absolute rest The seventh level in the abstracting process, which means, no motion; that means no time; and space has long since disappeared in time; and time meaning motion, has ceased and there follows a period of rest, the 7th day. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 3) p. 55.

Abstract To draw from. Wherever there is an inference, a conclusion reached; wherever there is judgment formed; wherever there appears an assumption or an opinion, etc., those are examples of abstracting. So, to abstract means to draw from and form other qualities, attributes, modalities, appearances, etc. Teacher’s Guide (Vol 3) p. 3. You draw from this or that quality and out of this quality you formulate a concept, an opinion, a conclusion, an inference. That drawing from and synthesizing is called abstracting. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 13. See Also Abstracting Process, General Semantics.

Abstracting process Students in the SNO, early and at the beginning of their learning, condition their thinking respecting THAT which we label the cosmic process as a stupendous infolding-unfolding process of light into energy and energy into living matter and the reversal -- living matter into energy and energy into light. When thinking has become conditioned in this manner, comprehending as it does everything from the galactic systems to the atom, little by little the multiplicity of details, differentiations, transpositions, configurational processes, representations, relationships, etc., together with descriptions pertaining thereto, are filled in. The First Crossing p.18. See Also General Semantics.

Abyss The Second Crossing or chasm. This diagrammatically separates the lower worlds or levels (symbolized by the moon, lunar, World Mother, Mattergy) from what is generally considered the higher worlds or level (symbolized by the sun, Higher Triad, Diamond Light). Everything below the Second Crossing was symbolized by the moon by reason of the fact that all representations, all configurations, all states of consciousness function only by reflection of that which is above. Everything above the Abyss (Second Crossing) is symbolized by the Sun, the Light worlds. Also The Light Mother vs the Earth Mother. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 69. Every so called ‘thing’ or person below the chasm functions by reflection; i.e., by the registry of light-energy waves and frequencies. We often describe that as saying we are motivated by unconscious forces. Ibid, p 114. See also Chasm, the

Activity of Mother Substance Equates with state of consciousness. This activity is called wave-frequency on a given level of the electro-magnetic spectrum. Activity takes place in more and more individualized or differentiated states of Self-awareness. A Description of the Psychic World p. 52.

Adam (Kadmon) Synonym for the generic term man. The First Crossing p. 80. Adam or Brahma, represents a prodigious expansion of consciousness, and that vastness respecting extensionality cannot be immediately consummated, grasped, it has to be taken in steps; but each step taken is a process representative of the whole....oneness. Teacher’s Guide (Vol 3)p. 42. Adam﷓Kadmon is another label for the real Self on the Mind level (and is androgynous) Practice of the Way p. 5. See Also Androgyny, Brahma, First Born.

Adam-Eve Originally the word for Adam was Jod, and Eve was Hove - Jod-Hove which has been twisted around down the ages and means Jehovah; Jod-Hove. Jehovah is a term representing the Pure Being and its Idea, not the Pure Being. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 3) p. 66.

Adepts of wisdom To rise in consciousness to that level described as "Logoic causation", beyond the three spheres of Nature known to the Master-self, is to pass into that point in development called the fifth degree of initiation. Natural Order Process (Vol 2) p. 111.

Adhisthana Generative center. When enough energy is withdrawn from value-giving and objective identification, that energy awakens in the generative center. It is the focus of all the creative energy which motivates the psyche, it is the stone which the builders rejected. Understanding the Psychic Nature ( Lesson 5), p.1 See Generative Center.

Aditi The highest power and influence in cosmos, Binah, Aditi, the negative force as a cosmic force that has no consciousness of any individual. It is impersonal and universal. It just shines by its nature. That is what Plato called the Good. Love becomes a synonym for God. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 107 See Also Binah, Love

Advent of Consciousness See Aarru

Affinity Means that the etheric substance and the texture of the cellular structures of the ‘body’ have taken on the influences that have been harbored or cultivated in the psychic nature. A Description of the Psychic World p. 73

Agape From the Greek: Represented the higher, purified and refined meaning of the influence of Eros. How to Discipline Your Psyche p. 35. (p. 31 new ver.) Love flows and flows like a fountain to everyone and everything; it is a motivating influence from the heights that we call Light’s Regions. This is our referent for the word - Love - Agape. A Description of the Psychic World p. 98. The higher form of love and unity which the pre﷓Christian Gnostic called Agape. Membership Letters (IV) p. 1. See Also Eros, Love

Ages/Cycles See Kalpas, Mahavantara, Yugas.

Agni In the Vedas, as the highest God... the Power-to-be-conscious. It is the ultimate point toward which a student is developing and which will at one point on his time-line be reached and fully and consciously developed. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 2) p.33. See Also Power-to-be-conscious, Force Centers.

Ahriman The dark forces/angel described in the Zend Avesta (Bible of the Parsees or Persians) Studies in Psychotherapy p. 55. See Also Zarathustra

Air Symbol represents the word gas (incandescent gas) ... fire into air. The First Crossing p.67. Air symbolizes a life giving force approximating fire. This air, meaning force - becoming incorporated into the configuration, not in the sense of its objective appearance, but in its more subtle and its higher level self. Christos p. 21. See Also Cosmic Process, Four elements

All Seeing Eye The All-Seeing Eye that never sleeps, never goes into darkness ... transferred to the sky, represented Osiris, God, the original creating power; the Mother Substance, Light, and the son, Logos, or Horus is born; One Father-Mother-Son. Christos p. 63. See Also The Great Seal of the U.S.A.

Anahata Sanskrit. The effect of force functioning on the heart level. Characterized by giving. Christos p. 124. This perfection of the power of Christ in human consciousness begins with the release of the fountain of love in that center called Anahata, or the heart. The First Crossing p. 91. See Also Heart Center.

Analogy We use the word analogy to symbolize the resemblance between component parts of two configurational representations. For example, we can say the atom is analogous to the solar system because we are relating the component parts of the atom in their ratio and proportion - ratio of parts to sizes (the proportions) - to the ratios and proportions of the component parts of the solar system. Practice of the Way p. 21.

Ananda An ecstasy, a joy, such an intoxicating happiness it can’t be described. Studies in Psychotherapy p.97.

Androgyne Describes the Real Self on Mind level - fifty percent positive and fifty percent negative - Adam-Kadmon is another label. Practice of the Way p. 55.

Angels of Light Those groups of Light-bearers ... heaven-born ones that never descend lower than the etheric level of the World Mother substance. These are real helpers. There are congeries of them and they are eager to help anyone who will allow that help. Practices in Individual Development p. 36. See Also Devas, Light-bearers.

Anima If we want to see the life force of what we call a tree, the movement must take place within the individual until he reaches that state labeled the vital, the anima, the informing principle. When he has that state developed within himself, he will see it in everything else, and not otherwise. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p.68.See Also Vital, the

Animal field In the differentiated field in which those individual differentiations eventuate which we label animal, the animal field or group soul has no ultimate differentiation which we label the cosmic egg, or the pneumatic ovum, autonomous field, etc. Studies in Psychotherapy p.12.

Animal Soul The force and influence of this differentiated field that we label animal-soul is labeled the pleasure-pain motive. Studies in Psychotherapy p.98. The lower psyche, under the genetrix. The animal soul, at its purest and best, is the house of the natural instincts, feelings and desires, but when over cultivated it becomes occupied by those entities, created and/or acquired. Also called "the depths of the unconscious" by the aristotelian psychologists. The First Crossing p. 88. See Also Lower Psyche.

Ajna (center) The Pituitary center. The force center located in the center of the head. After its opening, the Speirema, Kundalini, at the base of the spine opens to awaken the Mind level. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p.23. See Also Force Centers

Apperception Perception is to know; apperception is to know and know that you know. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 12. Apperception is relative to man born with the differentiation from the animal oversoul. Practice of the Way p. 14.

Arc Meaning the archetype upon which the configurational process is modeled and governed. We label it the pattern of the field. The arc is that into which all returns in the in-breathing process; positive and negative, two by two, they infold. The positive and negative unfold in the out-breathing which is called another incarnation, as the pattern develops from one outbreathing to the next inbreathing, etc. Studies in Psychotherapy p.7. See Also Archetype, Grand Architect.

Arche Arche in the root of the word Archetypal, a label for that which brings forth everything subsequently to that stage in the creative process. Two synonyms are: the "Great Christos" and "Archetypal Gods." The connotation denotes the union of the Positive Power, The Father Principal and the Light Mother ... that which gives birth by being activated by the Positive Power. A label for the Diamond Light. Self Mastery Through Meditation p. 109. See Arc, Ark.

Archetypal pattern A determinative matrix. Respecting a given individual it contains the pattern of the basic point of development reached in a preceding incarnation (which in its turn represents a synthesis of all preceding states or stages of evolution); it contains the forces which have eventuated from creation of karma; it contains, in memory-form or as a reflection, the planetary spheres, including the stars through which the Master-self has ‘journeyed’ between death and birth; it contains the forces, in miniature, of the powers and functions of the Logos; and in it inheres the order described as the natural order process of successive states of development; etc. Natural Order Process (Vol 2) p. 37.   See Also Atman.

Archetype Every differentiated field, particularly the Higher Self of a given man, is characterized by the lines of force that flow from the negative to the positive and beyond the ‘outside’ flow from the positive back to the negative. Those lines of force of a given field we designate the pattern, the arche, the archetype , and the energy that emerges becomes the ensemble of its units of energy. It becomes configurated as a representation of the pattern determined by the state in which the basic self is conscious of itself. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 22 See Also Arc, Arche.

Archetype of all potentiality The label given to those faculties on the Mind level. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 3) p. 57.

Ardath Clear and free from feeling, emotional thinking. Mind which represents that level of consciousness, that state of consciousness, clear, Ardath. Practice of the Way p. 45 See Also Aarru, Garden of.

Aristotelian state/influence That this world is a creation, a static, objective thing, that man has been searching for a creator extraneous to the world, etc. Practice of the Way p. 43. That identity with bundles of sensations and images and pictures. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 1) p. 46.

Arithman See Ahriman.

Armageddon The true battle of Armageddon is the conflict between the content of the lower psyche and the motivating influences of the higher psyche. The First Crossing p. 91.

Arupa body The power of forming a mental image of one’s self and functioning independently in this mental thought form, separate from one’s physical state. One must still discharge his negative energy (generative force) to the positive pole, instead of diverting it on the way to anything else. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p. 13. See Also Meditative attitude.

Ascending/descending process/(arcs of the cosmic process) A process of conversion of light into energy and energy into living-matter; and then reversing the process, the reconversion, the metamorphosis, which we call the transfigurating process -- the reconversion of living-matter into energy and energy into light. ... represents the cosmic outbreathing and inbreathing in the involutionary and evolutionary process. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 11. The Ascending Arc, the reversal (in the differentiating process) is a step toward oneness, a step toward unity. The point of waking consciousness at which the Power expands. "I prefer using the term descending arc instead of the ‘unconscious.’ " Self Mastery Through Meditation p. 90. When we cannot separate the thought of any configuration from the thought of Mother Substance then we are on the way toward understanding the descending arc. Ibid p. 104. This infolding of the positive Power into Mother substance and the unfolding of the positive Power into Self-awareness has been termed the descending and the ascending arcs of the cosmic process. The First Crossing p. 83. See Also Jacob’s ladder, Mattergy, Prodigal son.

Ascension, the It is the transfiguration of all into the Light that represents the ascension. The Christos becomes a creating power that metamorphoses all creations into Living Light and the ascension of the whole into Light is the the ultimate. The Christos p. 12.

Atma/Atman The lowest aspect of the Logoic triad, reflected as the highest aspect in the individualized state, is named Atma, Atman, or Creating-Will. There lie those forces which determine the structure of the psychic, etheric and physical vehicles of the elemental-self. This highest phase of the Master-self is also called Archetypal because it is like a determinative matrix. Natural Order Process (Vol 2) p. 37. In the conscious control of frequencies registered under the power of Atma, Will, we will formulate fields and set the pattern of the field by the guna for that configurational representation we elect. The First Crossing p. 94. The Orientals use the term Atman for the first principle of the fundamental basis of individual existence or Be-ing. Studies in Psychotherapy p.4. Atman or the Atmic level denotes the term, Masters, on the grounds that not until one is completely in control of the physiological organism can he be designated a master. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 1) p. 25. (Sanskrit, the Aryan language) the label for the force or power which controls the field and all creativity respecting that field, the Atman. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p. 12. The Son of the Man, the heavenly man. Ibid p. 59. The term Atma represents Will in Mind substance. The Christos p. 103. See Also Archetypal, Autonomous field, Noetic mind, Will.

Atma, Buddhi, Manas The Higher Triad, relative to the psychic nature, the ‘inner man’. Atma = Will Buddhi = Love Manas = Mind. Practice of the Way p.41. See Also Higher Triad.

AUM "The word was made flesh" The word AUM, as light-energy frequency and no-verbal, symbolizes the Trinity : Father Principal, Mother Substance and the Binding Force (Son). The Father is unconscious and unknown, unknowable, except by the activity in the Mother Substance; the Mother is unconscious and inactive except in contact with the Father; but both become conscious as the Son. Signifies these three in one Self called the Master (Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva = Becoming, Preserving, Transforming). Self Mastery Through Meditation p. 70. AUM is the "Sacred Word", "the Word of Glory" and "the Pranava." ibid p. 76. "OM" stands for the synthesis of all waves and frequencies. The Christos p. 208.

Atomistic Concept/Consciousness Identity with representations of a state of consciousness, or with the objective self-conscious state. The Christos p.139. See Also I-Am-I-ness

Aura Described as the radiance about the field itself; or it might be thought of as a ‘reflection’ or ‘inverted’ representation of that finer substance to which we have referred as the cosmic sphere substance surrounding and interpenetrating all. The Natural Order Process (Vol 1) p. 9. Energy -representations of the state which one is conscious. Force, gunas, energies, etc. formulated into the individual’s field. Ibid (Vol.) p. 262. The wave frequencies from the guna constituents of this "content" of the psychic nature establishes the psychic field, called the aura of a person. The First Crossing p.87.See Also gunas, psychic field.

Autonomous field The cosmic egg or pneumatic ovum. Pneumatic ovum relative to a growing and developing person who has not yet achieved consciousness of individualization and his relation to the cosmic process, and cosmic egg, the Higher Self representing the furthest ‘out’ or the ‘lowest’ in eventuation, the essential nature, the True Self born out of the differentiated field. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 6. The source which control the soul and body - the objective self-conscious state, or man. Self Mastery Through Meditation p.21.

In a given man’s essential nature, he can be described as a differentiated field in the world Mother substance; he can be described as an autonomous field of energy, which exhibits the characteristics of consciousness, of sentience; a sentient differentiated field or sphere. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 2) p. 26. And autonomous field is characterized by its pattern, lines of force forming a pattern; that the emergent energy on these lines of force, like whirls or knots configurate, and the configuration of these units of energy or the configuration of these whirls or knows on or of the lines of force, become the representation of the pattern of the field. Ibid p. 33. The description of the autonomous field is by analogy: sense faculty and reaction. Ibid (Vol 3) p. 57. The differentiated self. Ibid (Vol 4) p. 48. Other labels: The differentiated sphere, individualized field or the I AM which is my true Self. Ibid p. 59. "Autonomous" Field means separate and independent of the psychic-world and of the physical world. Ibid p. 47 An autonomous field is rather like a self-rolling wheel, a self-luminous light, a self-contained intelligence, independent of everything and anything except the field of Mother substance in which it functions. Practices in Individual Development p. 42. The individualizing process operating on the Mind level. Practice of the Way p. 61. See Also Mind level, Mother Substance, Pneumatic Ovum, Spirits.

Avidya Delusional images appearing substantive which are only appearance. Maya or ignorance. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 2) p. 3. See Also Maya.

Baptism by Fire This is a Cosmic process operating in your nature; ... this is an awakening from within yourself, it is a higher power which we call the Christos. That higher power that is contacted after the ego-sense has been developed. The Christos p. 100. The transfiguration of generative force into regenerative force, which creates the Noetic-Mind and Noetic mind Functions. Ibid p.169. This power streaming down from "on high" through the purified lower vehicles, literally transforms them. This is the Baptism by Fire, the third initiation, which admits the man to a higher order of beings -- that of supermen. He appears like other men, but in reality his thoughts, feelings, and acts are the thoughts, feelings, and acts of the I AM, conscious of its divine nature. Bible Lessons p.52.See Also Third Initiation

Baptism by Water One has emerged from the domination of these forces (psychic influences - desires, feelings, emotions, giving values and reacting thereto) which operate on all human planes of manifestation. The second initiation. The Natural Order Process (Vol 2) p. 110. After the psychic nature has been conquered, surmounted, risen above, passed, etc. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 1) p.22. Water is the symbol of desire, feeling and emotional world; water is the symbol of the psychic world. It can function only by reflection of the Light. That which is born must be lifted above the waters. Baptism by water implies a lifting above the psychic world. The Christos p.10. This period may be marked by tears. "...the weeping is the outer expression of the breaking up of old conditions and the birth into new. ...out of it you will arise, free from the domination of the emotional realm." Bible Lessons p.40. See also Second Crossing/Initiation

Basic point of development The degree to which differentiation has proceeded as an autonomous field represents what we call one’s basic point of development. Your basic point determines the content of your psychic nature. One cannot build into his psychic nature any quality, entity, substance, which is not comparable to the state in which he is basically conscious of himself, his basic state of development. Practice of the Way p. 61. See Also Autonomous field, Basic State.

Basic Realization The degree of individual expansion that belongs to you, not the values your mind may hold regarding your state of development. Neither the belief nor the doubt that you can build up about it in the realm of concepts, affects it one way or the other. Bible Lessons p. 71. See Also Basic Point/State.

Basic State At each point in what we call time, the intrinsic Power-to-be-conscious is conscious in a certain state. That state is characterized by an autonomous field which automatically ‘creates’ its own lines of force, independent of either the psychic world or the physiological world. The degree to which the Power-to-be-conscious is conscious is characterized by the structural lines of force of an autonomous field. Expanding States of Self Awareness p.116.

This state of consciousness of the individualized field, or the last differentiation in the cosmic process, is called the basic state of consciousness which becomes determinative respecting all subsequent states--acquired states, psychological states, feeling-desire-emotional-thinking states. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 7.

The content of the unknown part of the psychic nature represents precisely the basic state of development of the true individual. Ibid p. 59. The basic state undergoes very little change throughout an entire incarnation. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 1) p.22 Only as one fulfills the point in which he is now basically conscious of himself can he expand his consciousness beyond that point. The Seven Initiations p. 77. See Autonomous Field, Basic point of development.

Basic structure of the Universe A positive pole, a negative pole and the lines of force between the poles. This is the Trinity. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 3) p.9. See Also Trinity.

Basic Unity The positive and negative poles of any electromagnetic field. (In any individual field : sacral and conarial axis) Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p. 12.

Be-coming / Be-ing We use this word in reference to the individualizing process respecting consciousness. We say that the process we call growth and development is a continuous becoming. Natural Order Process (Vol 1) p.3. In the Wisdom Teaching the word "Be-ing", in respect to a given individual consciousness, represents the fulfillment of a cycle. "Be-ing" may also be described as that state of identity of the individual with the cosmic process. Ibid p. 3.The all that is has reference to Be-ing; the all that exists has reference to Be-coming. We’re either Be-coming conscious of Be-ing or, after having attained the consciousness of Be-ing, we are active in Be-ing. Studies in Psychotherapy p.143. See Also Atman.

Binah Hebrew: Light Mother Substance. The Christos p. 87. On the Tree of Life the Negative Substance is called Binah. Practices in Individual Development p. 85. On the Tree of Life chart as Negative Substance. Tree of Life p. 41. See Also Aditi, Light Mother Substance, Love, Tree of Life.

Binding Power / Force The neutron, the binding power between the negatively charged electrons and the positive charged protons. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 149. Kether, on the Tree of Life, a binding force that holds the positive and negative in union. Practices in Individual Development p.86.

The binding power is a power that holds everything together, and when we come down to the human level it is called love. So love is another label for the binding power. The Seven Initiations p. 5. See also Higher Triad, Kether, Love, Neutron.

Biota Representations of the World-Mother of (colloidal content.) Cosmology p. 60.

Birth When the configurational process is accompanied by the development of a new psychic nature. Ordinarily there are two births: being born into the physiological organism and being also born into a new psychic nature. Your real birth is to be born on the Mind level, the birth of the Christos, the eternal birth. Practice of the Way p. 63.

Birth of the Christ (conscious state) Signalized by the separation in consciousness of Mind from the psychic nature. The Christos p. 23. "Passing beyond" control by the genetrix into Light’s Regions where control of the genetrix becomes one of the functions of Be-ing. The First Crossing p. 105.

With the awakening of spiritual consciousness, the journey is begun. Bible Lessons p. 35. The Power-to-be-conscious fully awakened, fully aware of Itself means to be Born. A Description of the Psychic World p. 112.

Brahma Sanskrit for the (Hindu) Creator. A part of a three-in-one God-head: Bhrama, Vishnu, Shiva. These are fundamental forces that can be thought of, described, etc., as vital, fundamental facts respecting the dynamic process we call this world, this universe, the cosmos, etc. ... Man represents the Brahma phase of the function representing this dynamic world in which we are integrated. Vishnu represents the sustaining (preserving) power and Shiva the transforming or destructive power ("Destroyer of old patterns"). Understanding the Psychic Nature (lesson 5)p. 4-6. See Also Shiva, Vishnu.

Black magic Any practice which influences another against his human will or desire or against the law of his being -- is a step on the Lefthand Path, the path of black magic. Bible Lessons p.8.

Body of Light Means the building of a living-matter representation. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 57. Out of the very depths of the elemental force we culminate in the creative process of building the Solar Vesture, the Body of Light. Ibid p. 67. A psychic body and a configurated-self, the synthesis of which represents a person’s highest point of development. The Christos p. 86.

Brotherhood (of man) Members who constitute a brotherhood, meeting in a fourth dimensional way of synchronization and communication in the frequency world. Practice of the Way p. 11. Comprehends a wide range from babies to adults, with the adults spoken of as Adepts having the consciousness of responsibility for the babies in the brotherhood of humanity. No objective reference can be given to such a conception of a brotherhood. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 3) p.70.

Caduceus (The staff of Hermes) symbolizes the awakening of force in the generative center and the continuance of that force through the process of awakening and the developing of the other four centers, making five in all. The completion of the journey is labeled the Chrestos. And then awakening of the speirema. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p.23. Two lines running from the genital center to the pituitary or Ajna center. These two lines are diagrammatic of a positive and negative current. Practices in Individual Development p. 53.    See Also Force Centers, Staff of Hermes.

Causal Vehicle, the When Mind-substance (chittakasa) is focused by consciousness into an individualized sphere and may be considered with respect to the Master-self as the ‘physical body is to the elemental-self. The Natural Order Process (Vol 2) p.37.

Central Sun of all Existences, the The Son or the Son of the Union, which the configuration of the whole cosmos or cosmic process eventuates. The First Crossing p. 46.

Ceremonial Ray Means order, on the higher levels. Everything has its order and is in its place to one on the Ceremonial ray. The Seven Rays of Development p. 25. The combination of 1 + 2 + 3: 6, but seventh in the order of the rays. Ibid p. 5

Chakras The force centers are functional foci of the power of consciousness. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 2) p. 7. Foci or force centers. Ibid p. 15.

The centers of force through which and by means of which the creative process on all levels and in every respect is brought about. Ibid (Vol 4) p. 10.

The psychic nature is characterized by five force centers: The genital center, the solar center, the heart center, the throat center and the center in the forehead. Practices in Individual Development p. 4. In every human being are seven centers activated by the forces and powers of universal life, and through this activation all the operations of his being -- physical, emotional, mental and spiritual - are maintained. Bible Lessons p. 79. See Also: Force Centers, Four Somatic Divisions of Man.

Change over, the That part of you which continues and endures through all the cyclic process of birth, death, and birth again, the Real Self, will cause an alternation, a rhythm between the positive and the negative within the Self in which it is functioning. For a cycle of seven times round, you will manifest a female body (representation of the negative principal) and next seven times round in a male body (representation of the positive principal). The change over is the point where the cycle begins to alternate. It is observable in women as traits manifesting as aggressive and positive, loosing feminine touches or interests and becoming more masculine. In men as growing more gentle and feminine, leaning more and more to the aesthetic, etc. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 103.

Character, the The guna or quality predominant in the urge or drive, is determined by the area, meaning the center in the psychic nature from which the urge originates. ... once these various gunas or types of urge, the drive-force, have been differentiated and sharply so, then the substituted or compensatory forms of expressions, etc., can be determined by the fixation factors in the psyche. All these unfinished experiences in past incarnations constitute the weaker points; like the weak link of a chain. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 1) p.48.

Chasm, the See Abyss, the

Chaos Whenever the positive and negative are not in union... wherever there is a field, we have order ... cosmos. The First Crossing p. 45.

Chela Disciple, Veil of Maya p. 56.

Chemo-synthetical Adaptation to environment: The Power-to-be-conscious can develop the Mother substance to suit any environment (different kinds of configurations in order to be. Expanding States of Self-awareness p. 29-32.

Children of the Light The Logoi, those who walk in the Light, those who are conscious of the Light of the logos. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p. 60.

Chitta To the seer means an energy field in which the individualized consciousness functions in all of those respects we label sentient, intelligible, mind substance, etc. The Natural Order Process (Vol 2) p.70 See Also Mind Substance.

Chittakasa Mind substance or mental space, the lowest level or vehicle of the Master-self, and also spoken of as "the internal organ of thought." The Natural Order Process (Vol 2) p.36. See Also Energy-waves and frequencies.

Chokmah The Positive Power, the power of Saturn. The Christos p. 87.  See Also Positive Power, Tree of Life.

Chokmah-Binah The primal dichotomy, original atom: one electron, one proton, Purusha-Prakriti, or Father-Mother God. The First Crossing p. 67.

Chrestos / Christ / Christos Derived from the Egyptian : Karacas, Karcas, Krst : meant the anointing of the mummies. (Anointing of the carcass). The Greeks used the word Christos for the force, power or energy which motivates Mind substance, Chittakasa or Manas, Mind as distinct from the mental functions or cortical functions of the psychic nature. Chrestos was used for the naming, quickening and awakening power which takes place in the psychic nature at the birth of that power. Christ means a quickening, a Light, a higher and more expanding state of consciousness that accompanies the Light when it breaks in you. The Christos p. 25 ff. When we meet a quickening, an awakening power of Light; on the Mind Level, we label that the Christos. Ibid p. 42 The down flowing stream from the throne (Middle pillar of the Tree of Life) the allegory of Christ entering the temple of God...expurgation of all that is not of Light’s Regions. Understanding the Psychic Nature (Lesson 5), p. 3. The Mind level or a Christ-conscious Being. The First Crossing p.86. The Power of the Christos is symbolized by the All-seeing Eye. Ibid p. 97. The Universal Light, the aggregate of the seven streams (rays of development) of life. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 101. Horus (Egyptian), The Son of Isis and Osiris. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 3) p.48. Chrestos: The process of awakening and the developing of the other four force centers and the completion of the journey, making five, symbolized by the Caduceus, the Staff of Hermes. ibid (Vol 4) p. 23. The Power from the Mind Level. The Practice of the Way p. 48.

Church A label for The Field or group consciousness. The First Crossing p. 77.

Circle Represents the Unmanifest because it has no beginning and no end, represents the undifferentiated, unbroken continuity of consciousness in its absolute state of Self-awareness. Bible Lessons p. 96.

Clairvoyant Means "clear seeing", i.e. clear of the veil of Maya. Veil of Maya p. 33. Extended vision. The First Crossing p. 81. The sharpness and clarity of perception on the Mind level. Studies in Psychotherapy p.44.

Colloid The etheric world, level, body, substance, etc. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p.27. From the Greek word for glue. Permeable membranes. Cosmology p. 61. See Also Etheric.
 

Communal Adjustment Represents the feeling that I have that I belong. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 151.

Compassion Is breadth and depth and height of understanding, and it doesn’t have any forgiveness or love either in it. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 3) p. 22.

Conarium / Conarial center That point (that the Master makes with the ‘outer’ man) of contact in the head center. Self-Mastery Through Meditation p.82. The Crown center, the Thousand Petaled Lotus. Practices in Individual Development p.53. See Also Crown Center.

Configurational process The motion of consciousness followed through atomic structures, molecular structures to the colloidal point respecting the function - respecting motion of consciousness. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p.40. See Also Cosmic Process, Emergent energy.

Configuration The configuration is a representation of the pattern; the pattern is a representation of the state in which consciousness is conscious. This is based on the axiomatic assumption that there is a power-to-be-conscious that is indubitable, self-evident, etc. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 123. When we think of the configuration we should think of Light-energy-plasm in one act of consciousness. Self-Mastery Through Meditation p.104. Configurations of units of energy represent this world in which we live, move and have our existence, and in which the Be-ing - Power-to-be-conscious - functions. The Christos p. 200. See Also Malkuth.

Configurational level The third level upon which we function described as a configuration of dynamic units of energy. The configuration in which we function, as in a vehicle, is a representation of the state in which the individualized Self is conscious of Itself, plus the qualities in the psychic nature that have obscured that true Higher Self. How to Discipline your Psyche p. 17 (new ed.) (p.19 old ed.) Represents the state of consciousness of the individualizing field, as well as the content of the psychic nature. Expanding States of Self-awareness p.119. See Also Energy World (level).

Configurational world Light and energy fields, waves, frequencies, patterns, units of energy, etc. Events in a space-time continuum. This world as a configuration of units of energy, a dynamic process, a continuous creating process, etc. The First Crossing p. 100.

Conscience Your Dharma operating, functionally speaking, in you as a compulsion urge, which when not understood is called conscience. It’s your own inner sense of decency, your own inner sense of fitness of things, and inner sense of feel and consciousness. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 134.

Conscious Where functioning in the objective manifold becomes conscious....the third and fourth orders of the abstracting process. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 3) p, 37. The act of being conscious means that one is registering frequency or he couldn’t be conscious. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 115.

Conscious functioning Awakening to the conscious registry of the guna, the quality of energy-forces registered and which we are motivated. This characterizes those who will participate in the New Cycle. The First Crossing p.93.

Consciousness The act of being conscious and being focused and identified with the power with which one is conscious. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p. 7. With the term light as representation of that essential nature which again is labeled, the World Mother or nature. Ibid p. 26. The Self or the Power-to-be-conscious The Christos p. 213. Consciousness is the activity of the Mother (light, energy, living matter, etc.) Expanding States of Self-awareness p. 30.

The act of being aware. Cosmology p. 124. Light, or consciousness, pertains to the negative aspect of the Cosmic Process, which we call the Mother. A Description of the Psychic World p. 83. Jiva (Sanskrit) - Light - energy as a field or as a differentiated sphere. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 1) p. 29. That which is called the Field (it is sentient) is also called consciousness. Ibid (Vol 3) p.61. Consciousness represents the totality, the summum bonum of the essential nature of any given ‘thing’, as well as any given individual. Ibid (Vol 4) p. 5.   See Also Jiva, Light-energy.

Consciousness-light-energy The essential nature of any given field and therefore every field. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p. 27. See Also Field(s)

Content of the psychic nature Feeling-images, desire-forms, etc. The First Crossing p. 87.

Context of situation Environment. A person if influenced by the waves-frequencies around him. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 29. See Also Environment.

Conversion A complete reorientation of consciousness from objectivity and the psychic world to the realms of reality, the realm of Beings. The Seven Initiations p. 73.

Cosmic Egg See Autonomous Field.

Cosmic Process A representation of the creative forces, the epitomization of the whole creative process of the universe. The First Crossing p.42.

Epitomized by man, in his awakening to Self-awareness portrays its every phase. Ibid p. 83. The way it functions (the cosmic process and every differentiation therein functions likewise according to the whole) ... life facts. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 37. God, the whole cosmic process. Ibid p. 49.

What Plato labeled the Good, we in SNO label the Power-to-be-Conscious ibid p. 143. The process whereby all differentiations, all states of Be-ing in lightergy are reflected in mattergy (energy-living matter configurations). Ibid p. 146.

The natural sequential expansion of a given individual’s consciousness from one state to another representing order. There is an orderly process, rhythm, balance, etc., to structure and function which we label the cosmic process. The Natural Order Process (Vol 1) p. 3. Reality. Ibid p. 19. Each minute area (group of cells) in the physiological organism, represents a correspondence, microcosmic replica, or epitomization of that macrocosmic organism-as-a-whole we call the cosmic process. Ibid (Vol 2) p. 219. The fundamental basis or reality from which abstractions are made. The Christos P. 193. See Also God, Natural Order Process, Triune Man.

Cosmos Order. The First Crossing p.45. The ultimate or highest of all comprehensive spheres. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 5. The all-embracing actuality discovered is the invariant Natural Order Process characterizing life-facts, which in their totality and as a process, we label Cosmos. Self-Mastery Through Meditation p. 9. The word order (Cosmos) signalizes number (as quantity composed of many units, vortices of energy, energy system, etc.), configurational representations, hierarchical systemizations, ensembles, etc. Ibid p. 19. See Also Natural Order Process.

Council, the The supreme government of the world -- the hierarchy of supermen known as the Council. Bible Lessons p. 106.

Creation A static view of the world in which we have our existence from the point of view of the objective manifold of values. The First Crossing p.101. ‘Creation’ was not some happening thousands of years B.C. it is creation is in continuum. Natural Order Process (Vol 1) p. 6. See Also Cosmic Process, Creating process.

Creating process The beginning of the galaxy is the beginning of a creative process. The Seven Initiations p. 3. An ongoing continuing, dynamic process. Bible Lessons p. 4.

Creative force That force which motivates every form of expression in the individual’s nature. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 1) p. 35. See Also Motivating principle (Force).

Creative Will See Atma/Atman

Creptoid states Projection or dissociation of the consciousness form the physiological organism, also hypnotism and trance states. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 2) p. 4.

Crossing a complete reorientation of consciousness from one ‘level’ or state to another ‘level’ or state. The First Crossing p. 4.

Crown Center See Conarial center

Crystalloidal state Described as the peripheral boundary of its Field (or a given field) comparable to the expanding and contracting theory of the universe, as is held by some astrophysicists. Cosmology p. 52. Consciousness focused on ‘objects’ and ‘things.’ Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p.55. When we condition our minds to think only in terms of consciousness and the states, then we label that phenomenal or objective world as the crystalloidal state, which is transferred to everything else; every other configuration is seen accordingly. Ibid p. 67. See Also Objective world, Phenomenal world.

Crystallization Trying to maintain the status quo in a dynamic process .... results in : e.g. Hardening of the arteries, ossified bones, arthritis, calcium deposits, etc. Studies in Psychotherapy p.49.

Crucifixion After it (the generative substance) has been nailed on the cross of matter, it emancipates itself permanently from the Mother principle and becomes a self-luminous, self-rolling Light, becomes fully individualized; It now becomes logos, the reason in its own self for everything of which it is conscious. The Christos p. 11.

Cycles of seven The perfected individual is androgynous, both male and female in one representation. The cycles of seven is reflected in the process of transference from the positive to the negative poles of its own field or being ... thus seven times round (in palingenesis) manifestation will be female and seven times round male, until the qualities of each become balanced, brought about by the power of equilibrium. The First Crossing p. 28. Also the seven cycles are described as mile posts in the process of development of each individual : 7 yrs, 14 yrs, 28 yrs, 35 yrs, 42 yrs, 49 yrs, 56 yrs and 62 yrs, etc. Practices in Individual Development p. 70 ff.

Dance of Kali The period between the deep unconscious sleep and the awakening, where the mother principle exerts the predominating influence upon the awakening and emerging power-to-be-conscious. The Seven Initiations p. 14.

Dance of Life The Lila, everything is the play of Brahma, which means action. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 3) p.65. See Also Lila.

Dark Night of the Soul That cut off feeling and the agony due to the fact that one can no longer integrate, psychologically speaking, and another group had not yet been found to affiliate with. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 63. See Also Gethsemane.

Darkness The negative pole. Membership Letters (V) p.6.

Death The entrance into the consciousness of the man state, the lower quaternary, the psychic world, etc. So death means passing beyond, dying to and being born again ... there are two deaths: the first is withdrawal of consciousness from objective identity, functioning in the psychic nature; the second: is the withdrawal from the psychic nature and functioning in the Higher triad. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 2) p. 20. Transition, the aristotelians call death, and after the senses are gone, a reorientation in consciousness takes place ... to the only thing that is real, enduring and permanent - the Real Self functioning in the Real World. Practice of the Way p. 24. The transition when the autonomous field withdraws or inbreathes and a disintegration of the configuration takes place is called the first death. Later on there is the withdrawal of the autonomous field from the psychic nature and the factors, the qualities, the entities break up and go their respective ways ... the second death. Ibid p. 63. The deluge, symbolizes the break up of the psychic nature, the second death. Ibid p. 72. See Also Deluge, the / Transition.

Death of the personality It is pulling all of the energies, forces, out of the centers which motivate functioning on the psychic level. The application in conscious functioning of that analogy of the grain planted in the earth which "unless it die it bringeth forth no fruit." The First Crossing p. 76. "In an upper room, prepare the last supper." The resurrection of consciousness in the Light. Self-Mastery through Meditation p. 52.

Deliverance Emancipation; the transvaluation of values, non-identity, etc. or Mukta (Sanskrit) Teachers’s Guide (Vol 1) p. 15. See Also Emancipation, Mukta.

Deluge See Second Death .

Demiurge / Demiurgos The Grand Architect of the Universe. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p. 27. The emerging Power-to-be-conscious, Logos, Demiurgos, to use three labels for that which is emerging out of the Mater of the Cosmic Process. Membership Letters (II) p. 3. See Also Arche, Logos, Real Self, Sa-Guna Brahma.

Descending process (arc) Described as an infoldment(infolding process), an involution, a metamorphosis of light into energy, energy into living matter, of the evolutionary process. The First Crossing p. 66.

Infolding of the Positive Power into Mother Substance. Ibid p.83.  The unconscious. Self-Mastery through Meditation p. 89. An individual has an aeonian past, which can be described as the descending arc through successive differentiations until the final, ultimate, autonomous field has become differentiated. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 1) p. 30. See Also Ascending arc.

Desire The power with which consciousness works on the higher levels is reflected in the psychic nature and is labeled desire. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 2 ) p. 33. See Also Psychic Nature.

Destiny Two types: Created and Self-created. Created destiny is when your latitude of choices are shaped by your polarized thoughts, and other influences that influence you hour by hour, day by day, week by week, month by month, year by year. Thus you build your destiny. A synonym is karma, The way you work, consciously or unconsciously. Self-Created or Discovered destiny is that which is buried in matter and is that eternal Power-to-be-conscious struggling and working to pip its shell and become conscious of itself. .... that destiny is the real purpose of it all, to be conscious of that is our real destiny, to be conscious of the Self. Practices in Individual Development p. 13 ff . See Also Karma, Sortem Suam Quisque Amet.

Detachment In the political situations of the U.S., we are admonished to retain the position of the witness, the onlooker with great love that enfolds and encompasses all creatures - great compassion that is neither indifference nor involvement. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 4) p. 52.

Deva / Deva line We consider the deva line of development an exception to the emergent process in the human line, which proceeds from lowly forms - the animal world and below - into the man-state and beyond. The Deva Line of Development p. 1. Called angels in the Christian Bible. Devas who have incarnated in human form have been called "Heaven-born ones," but could also be applied to those who have never been in human form. Ibid p. 17.

They configurate on the etheric plane. They are free from the "weight" of physical substance. To move, they focus on that frequency and they are there. Understanding the Psychic Nature Lesson 13, p.4. Those who belong to the deva world must develop the psyche the same as those who belong to the human line must develop the psyche before they can leave that point in the cyclic process. The deva line is a parallel line of evolution. The First Crossing p. 70. They are called psychic, ‘intuitional’ people; they are called clairvoyants because they see colors and lights and forms, they are called creators of beauty; by their nature, they are creative. Ibid p. 73 ff. The Deva is easily controlled and the most powerful influence which can be developed for an individual. Their world is complete harmony; music; peace; therefore they do not build up any resistance. Devas much attach themselves to a higher developed one, whether from the human line or another line of evolution. They can function in frequency just as the fish can function in water. Harmony and love are more important to them than food to the objective conscious man. They draw support and sustenance and energy and life from the aura, the field of a higher developed one and they grow by reason of that. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 2) p. 21. See Also Angels of Light.

Devachan That state of the Master’s consciousness upon the Mind-level into which one passes when deprived of his psychic ‘body’. It is of a higher order in the process of abstracting, as well as in experience, than the described psychic-level concept of heaven. True "heaven-world" of the Master; which is recognized as "the goal" on the part of many of the sons of man. The Natural Order Process (Vol 2) p. 91.

Development The process of unfolding into conscious the orders of life from the "kingdom" (Malkuth) of the Tree of Life to the Crown (Kether). The natural order or cosmic process. The First Crossing p. 46. The transference of identity from one level to another level which constitutes the individualizing process. Teachers Guide (Vol 4) p. 50. See Also Growth, Expansion, Individualizing Process, Natural Order Process.

Devil An invention my men that they might have more security and pleasure; out of effort to avoid that which hurts, as an evolutionary motive, a personified evil. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 99. The personification of the powers of darkness. These powers are the emanations of humanity, both incarnate and discarnate. Bible Lessons p. 44.

Devotion Ray The fifth ray of development but the sixth outpouring of force from the Central Sun. It is a welling up of within us a Power, a force of devotion to IT and to the representations of our state of consciousness which symbolize IT. A force within us that we already have and that force stems right back into the ray flowing forth from the Logos, the stream of force in waves-frequencies that we break into and register, which motivates us. The Seven Rays of Development p. 5. One on this ray is a preserver of the factors and values that have gone into a given culture. Patriotism, the devotional attitude. Ibid p. 25.

Descent of the Host/Fire When one completely finishes the regenerative process, there is a flowing downward form "on high" of the "divine Shakti", and all of the centers become still more purified by that "descent of the fire." The Natural Order Process (Vol 2) p. 110.

Dharma The Law of individual Being. When the emergent process of the Power (to-be-conscious) asserts itself strongly to become self-sufficient, individualized. Understanding the Psychic Nature (Lesson 11) p. 1 ff.

The bounden duty which one owes to his ‘deeper’ or ‘higher’ Self. "The spirit of the Lord within his soul." The First Crossing p. 6 ff. That which precedes and supersedes all moral codes. The higher motivating force flowing from the intrinsic Self. Intrinsically each occupies or represents a point in a vast scheme of growth-development, a cosmic process and relative to the precise point, state, state, that a given individual occupies there is, at that point, the creative forces of the process itself operating in him which becomes a compulsion urge which he must obey. Studies in Psychotherapy p.132. Bounden duty; function with respect to a given sphere or field; work to do with respect to a given cycle. Natural Order Process (Vol 1) p.4. See Also Law of Individual Being.


Diakinesis A dual action; a split into two equal divisions of any force. Cosmology p. 58.

Diamond Light The Light ‘division of the Mother is altogether too brilliant to reflect or to function as a reflector. Those who have seen the Diamond Light (not the highest aspect) have experienced a psychic shock producing excruciating pain. The First Crossing p. 86. Above the Second Crossing there are several differentiated regions of Light: Diffused Light, Diamond Light and Supernal Light. The Diamond Light is pure, un-reflected Light, very painful and of a very high frequency. Self-Mastery Through Meditation p. 100. The Arche, The Great Christos, or Archetypal Gods. Ibid p. 109. In the Vedic system of teachings it was labeled Indra. The Diamond Light is of such incredible sharpness that as long as we function in the objective state, the objective manifold of values, we have to leave it out. It’s too intense for the neural system, that means independently of the physiological organism, then can we safely open consciousness on the level of the Diamond Light. Practice of the Way p.30 ff. See Also Arche, Light’s Regions.

Dianetics A psycho-logical ‘system’ based upon cellular impression, memory, reaction, etc. The Christos p. 174. See Engram.

Diffused Light Like electricity which is a grosser form of the configurational energy world, e.g. Electric welding spark. Practice of the Way p. 31. After the Second Crossing into the region of Mind. Self-Mastery Through Meditation p.101. See Also Light’s Regions.

Dissociation Projection. A lapse of consciousness on the objective side but there is a dissociation of the psychic nature from the configurational self. Going out of your body. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 82 ff.

Divine Mind The Greater Self, Infinite Intelligence, as a universalized state. The process of developing the Self as an Idea; the Power-to-be-conscious becoming conscious of itself as a Be-ing. How to Discipline your Psyche p. 10 ff. See Also Greater Self, Logos.

Dream Images Those pictures and images which are not sharply edged . Clearly defined in the consciousness -- and therefore do not appear substantive are called, in the objective manifold-of-values, psychic pictures, psychic images, dream pictures, the dream fabric, etc. The First Crossing p. 99. See Also Psychic images.

Dreams The basis for dreams are unfulfilled, creative responses and urges, irrespective of the reason for the non-fulfillment of those creative urges. Not carried out because of censorship, belonging to your objective level, your private world, mentalized values about this and that, and about codes, ethics, rules, regulations, etc. Studies in Psychotherapy p. 87.

Dual throng Polar opposite words such as hot-cold, high-low, far-near, etc. The First Crossing p. 98.
 

Duration The continuation of Be-ing. "State or quality of lasting." Natural Order Process (Vol 1) p.4.

Dweller on the Threshold A thought-form created by man since his first appearance in physical form. It is a composite of personal wilings, human determinations, selfish desires, elemental-self indulgences, etc. It is created by the elemental-self and not by the Master-self. It shows up when aspires to function on the Mind-level of the Master-self and can only be dissipated by a supreme exertion of will. The Natural Order Process (Vol 2) p. 64. The lower psyche with its content which rises up to bar the way to Light’s Regions. It is the censor which prevents one, in a state of objective identification, from being aware of the content of his lower psyche. The First Crossing p. 88. All of the past, the destiny (that each has created) rolled up into the "now," confronts us. Practices in Individual Development p. 17. The acquired and cultivated qualities of all the past, the ensemble of all the desirings, lovings, and thinkings. Ibid p. 39. A materialization of all your past thoughts and desires. Bible Lessons p. 45.

Dynamic processes Events The First Crossing p.101. We call this world an energy world or a dynamic process. Teachers’s Guide (Vol 2) p.47. See Also Energy World, ‘thing’ & ‘object’